Satan, Allahís Universal Plan would have failed.
blamed Satan for causing Adam and his wifeís expulsion from heaven. But
without his alleged participation, Allah could not have fulfilled His
Universal Plan. This we can conclude from reading the following verses of
Quranís Sura The Cow, or The Heifer.
31: And He taught Adam the nature of all things;
then He placed them before the angels, and said: Tell me the nature of
these if ye are right.
word sadeqiin, which appears in the Arabic text, has been translated as
right, but generally it is understood to mean truthful.
The translation of the Arabic word sadeqiin into right is significant, for
it helps the Muslim translators to keep the angels outside the category of
those beings who are untruthful, or liars.
after creating Adam, against the angelsí opposition, Allah is said to
have decided to prove them wrong by having Adam exhibit his human
capabilities, with which the angels are not at all equipped. To achieve
His objective, Allah is believed to have created certain things and taught
Adam their nature, intentionally excluding the angels from His coaching.
Thereafter, He placed those things before the angels, challenging them to
elucidate their nature, specifically, to prove that they were untruthful
in their comments that they had made earlier about Adam and his
32: They said: Glory to Thee: of knowledge we have
none, save what Thou hast taught us: in truth it is Thou Who art perfect
in knowledge and wisdom.
with the dilemma, angels conceded their ignorance about the nature of the
divinely selected things, telling Allah, at the same time, that they
failed the test because, unlike Adam, He had not taught them the nature of
those things beforehand. They confessed that it was He who alone had
perfect knowledge of all things - -a calculated move on the part of the
angels, which they had designed to prevent Allah from calling them
untruthful and liars.
33: He said: O Adam! Tell them their nature. When he
had told them, Allah said: Did I not tell you that I know the secrets of
heavens and earth, and I know what ye reveal and what ye conceal?
To impress the angels with the ken of
Adamís knowledge, Allah is alleged to have placed the same things before
Adam and asked him to describe their nature. When he did it successfully,
Allah felt stimulated to taunt the angels on their ignorance, as well as
to accuse them of concealing things from His knowledge. What matters or
information angels concealed from Allah, He did not elaborate in the
34: And behold, We said to the angels, ďBow down
to Adam:Ē and they bowed down: not so Iblis: he refused and was haughty:
he was of those who reject Faith.
After the angels had been thoroughly
humiliated through Adamís superior, albeit couched knowledge, and after
accusing them of concealing things or information from Him, thereby
creating in them a sense of inferiority, Allah ordered the angels to bow
down before Adam in recognition of his knowledge and, perhaps, his
abilities as well. All the angels bowed down, except Iblis. Allah did not
take Iblisís alleged disobedience seriously. He merely called him
haughty and a rejecter of faith. Iblis was not punished for the sin he is
alleged to have committed by refusing to carry out Allahís command.
to what we read in the Quran, Allah never required Adam and his wife to
bow down before Him, their Creator. Abraham, who came into being long
after Adam, was, perhaps, the first person who, upon being asked by Allah,
had bowed down to the Lord and Cherisher of the Universe.
order to understand why Iblis allegedly refused to comply with Allahís
order, we need to resolve the following questions:
1. Who was Iblis?
2. What was or is the difference between Iblis and the angels?
3. Did or did not Allah know beforehand that Iblis was going to disobey
to these questions can be culled from Allahís own statements recorded in
the Quran. According to Him, the Arabs believed in the existence of Jinns,
who they believed, lived in the deserts. They also subscribed to the
belief that some among the Jinns were good in nature, others were evil and
capricious. The latter category of Jinns caused men to turn majnoon
or mad, together with causing them other troubles. The Arabs also thought
that Jinns were more powerful than men because they believed, and as Allah
has confirmed, these invisible creatures were made of fire.
Iblis was one of the evil Jinns, not an angel, worshipped by the Arabs as
Iblis, the Arabs held the belief that the angels were made of a gentler
substance. Worshipping them as well, the Arabs sought their intercession
with Allah for bestowing His kindness and mercy on them.
spoke of the same Iblis, one of the desert spirits, which occupied
Muhammad and his compatriotsí minds from their childhood.
identity of Iblis established, we now find ourselves in a quandary,
mindful of the time when Adam was created, and especially when he had no
opportunity to know who Iblis was and what were his abilities and power.
Frankly speaking, we are puzzled and confused by Allahís following
incongruous question, addressed to Adam:
. . Would you then serve him
and his offspring as your masters rather than Myself, despite their enmity
it be, we wonder, that Allah was subconsciously referring in the quoted
statement to the practices of the Arabs and somehow tried to link the
earthly Iblis to the time in which Allah is supposed to have created Adam
we are prompted to deduce from the very nature of the event that, in spite
of Allahís being omniscient, He did not have prior knowledge of
Iblisís intention; otherwise He would not have asked him the reason of
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