toured the Arab tribes, ordering them to accept him as a prophet and join his
cause. At last, after all the local tribes had rejected and ridiculed him, he
persuaded two tribes from another area to take him in and protect him. This was
the first official Muslim ummah, community.
deal is called the Treaty of Aqaba, and was made in two stages a year apart.
FIRST PLEDGE AT
‘AQABA April 621 A.D.
Ishaq:198/TabariVI:125 “The following year, twelve of the Ansar came on
the pilgrimage and met the Messenger, this being the first Aqabah. They took an
oath of allegiance to him according to the terms of the ‘Pledge of Women.’
This was before the duty of making war was laid upon them.”
VI:127 “There were twelve of us and we
pledged ourselves to the Prophet in the manner of women that was laid out before
war was enjoined.”
SECOND PLEDGE AT AL-‘AQABA,
March, 622 A.D.
second group met Muhammad secretly in the middle of the night, on his orders, to
pledge their allegiance to him, against their own tribesmen.
arranged that they should meet him secretly
at Mina, in the days of the Tashrick, when men had fallen asleep.’ Secretary
of Wackidi p.424
had concealed our business from those of our people who were polytheists. We
slept that night among our people in the caravan until when a third of the night
had passed we went stealing off softly like sandgrouse to our appointment with
the apostle, as far as the gully by al-‘Aqaba. There were seventy-three men,
with two of our women.”
Ishaq 203: The
apostle spoke and recited the Quran, and invited men to Allah and commended
Islam. Then he said, ‘I will enter a contract
of allegiance with you, provided that you protect me as you would your women
Tabari VI:133 “We pledge our
allegiance to you and we shall defend you as we would our womenfolk. Administer
the oath of allegiance to us, Messenger of Allah, for we are men of war
possessing weapons and coats of armour.
Allah gave permission to his Apostle to fight, the second Aqabah contained
conditions involving war which were not in the first act of submission. Now
we bound ourselves to war against all mankind for Allah and His Apostle. He
promised us a reward in
for faithful service. We pledged ourselves to war in complete obedience to Muhammad no matter
how evil the circumstances.”
Tabari VI:138 “Those present at the oath of Aqabah had sworn an allegiance to
Muhammad. It was a pledge of war against
all men. Allah had ordered fighting.
given his Messenger permission to fight by revealing the verse:
UNTIL PERSECUTION IS NO MORE AND RELIGION IS ALL FOR ALLAH.’
Ishaq:204/TabariVI:134 Abbas the uncle of the
Prophet said: ‘Men of the Khazraj, do you know what you are pledging yourselves to in
swearing allegiance to this man?’
they answered. ‘In swearing allegiance
to him we are pledging ourselves to wage war against all mankind.’
Ishaq:205 ‘If you are loyal to this undertaking, it
will profit you in this world and the next’
said Muhammad. They said, ‘We will accept you as a Prophet under these
conditions, but we want to know specifically what we will get in return for our
loyalty.’ Muhammad answered, ‘I
‘What shall we gain for our loyalty?’ He answered, ‘
. So reach out your hand.’ They stretched out their arms and swore an
allegiance to him.
p.161; Katib al Wackidi, p. 42 1/2; Tabari, p.172
When Muhammad fled
and established himself at his new base,
, in 622, and had the support of militant tribes, he announced a treaty defining
the rights of his Muslim community and the non-Muslims.
following text is an extract from the first official treaty of Muhammad’s
Muslims and the other tribes in
page 1 | page 2 | page