Leaving Islam




Muhammad toured the Arab tribes, ordering them to accept him as a prophet and join his cause. At last, after all the local tribes had rejected and ridiculed him, he persuaded two tribes from another area to take him in and protect him. This was the first official Muslim ummah, community.

This deal is called the Treaty of Aqaba, and was made in two stages a year apart.  


Ishaq:198/TabariVI:125 “The following year, twelve of the Ansar came on the pilgrimage and met the Messenger, this being the first Aqabah. They took an oath of allegiance to him according to the terms of the ‘Pledge of Women.’ This was before the duty of making war was laid upon them.”  

Ishaq:199/Tabari VI:127There were twelve of us and we pledged ourselves to the Prophet in the manner of women that was laid out before war was enjoined.”



This second group met Muhammad secretly in the middle of the night, on his orders, to pledge their allegiance to him, against their own tribesmen.

Muhammad arranged that they should meet him secretly at Mina, in the days of the Tashrick, when men had fallen asleep.’ Secretary of Wackidi p.424

“We had concealed our business from those of our people who were polytheists. We slept that night among our people in the caravan until when a third of the night had passed we went stealing off softly like sandgrouse to our appointment with the apostle, as far as the gully by al-‘Aqaba. There were seventy-three men, with two of our women.”

Ibn Ishaq 203:  The apostle spoke and recited the Quran, and invited men to Allah and commended Islam. Then he said, ‘I will enter a contract of allegiance with you, provided that you protect me as you would your women and children.’

Tabari VI:133 We pledge our allegiance to you and we shall defend you as we would our womenfolk. Administer the oath of allegiance to us, Messenger of Allah, for we are men of war possessing weapons and coats of armour.

Ishaq:208 “When Allah gave permission to his Apostle to fight, the second Aqabah contained conditions involving war which were not in the first act of submission. Now we bound ourselves to war against all mankind for Allah and His Apostle. He promised us a reward in Paradise for faithful service. We pledged ourselves to war in complete obedience to Muhammad no matter how evil the circumstances.”  

Tabari VI:138 “Those present at the oath of Aqabah had sworn an allegiance to Muhammad. It was a pledge of war against all men. Allah had ordered fighting.

Allah had given his Messenger permission to fight by revealing the verse:


Ishaq:204/TabariVI:134  Abbas the uncle of the Prophet said: ‘Men of the Khazraj, do you know what you are pledging yourselves to in swearing allegiance to this man?’

‘Yes,’ they answered. ‘In swearing allegiance to him we are pledging ourselves to wage war against all mankind.’  

Ishaq:205If you are loyal to this undertaking, it will profit you in this world and the next’  said Muhammad. They said, ‘We will accept you as a Prophet under these conditions, but we want to know specifically what we will get in return for our loyalty.’  Muhammad answered, ‘I promise you Paradise .’  

Tabari  What shall we gain for our loyalty?’ He answered, ‘ Paradise . So reach out your hand.’ They stretched out their arms and swore an allegiance to him.  

Hishami; p.161; Katib al Wackidi, p. 42 1/2; Tabari, p.172  

When Muhammad fled Mecca and established himself at his new base, Medina , in 622, and had the support of militant tribes, he announced a treaty defining the rights of his Muslim community and the non-Muslims. 

The following text is an extract from the first official treaty of Muhammad’s Muslims and the other tribes in Medina :


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